Common measures: Lines of source code written per programmer month. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 897–910 (2005), Hall, M., Frank, E., Holmes, G., Pfahringer, B., Reutemann, P., Witten, I.H. Plotting graphs of the data can aid understanding and create overall pictures of the trends occurring lower down that are not immediately obvious when you are reading the metrics as numbers alone. Number of statically unreachable statements in the given scope. pp 272-284 | Kazuki Nishizono, Shuji Morisaki, Rodrigo Vivanco, Ken-ichi Matsumoto Source code comprehension strategies and metrics to predict comprehension effort in software maintenance and evolution tasks — an empirical study with industry practitioners ICSME, 2011. Let’s understand what is test coverage and how it is evaluated in the general terms. Customer Problems 4. Sum of the statement nesting levels for all statements in the function. A language-sensitive source code search engine can be found at SD Source Code Search Engine. This paper examines the source of these problems and explains Examples are the Maintainability Index [16], the CK metrics, including coupling and cohesion [5] and various code smells [9]. Number of non-empty case blocks which fall through to the next case block. Fernando Brito e Abreu’s MOOD metric set. Software metrics can be classified into two types as follows: 1. Download preview PDF. The two important software characteristics are: 1. Number of switch statements with no default. If poor quality software produced quickly, may appear to be more productive than if produce reliable and easy to maintain software (measure only over software development phase). IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 402–419 (2007), Software Engineering, Business Continuity, and Education, International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications, DEAK Cooperation Research Private Unlimited Company, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27207-3_28, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Quality and reliability of software. Number of new attributes defined for this class. Software measurement is a titrate impute of a characteristic of a software product or the software process. HIS Code Complexity Metrics. Abstract. For an exhaustive list please refer to the Cantata manual. Customer Satisfaction Not logged in These software development metrics assess defects and vulnerabilities. ... Software metrics are actually very useful if you use them properly. Three major programming paradigms measured by source code metrics were identified.The CK metrics and the object oriented paradigm are the most studied subjects.Java benchmark systems are the most commonly measured systems in research.Technology on metrics extraction mechanisms are not up to research advances.Empirical studies have a major impact on the code metrics community. The following are some of the most significant and useful software metrics of the latter type. For example, the maximum nesting levels within functions is also applicable to class methods. 151--155. In Proceedings of the 9th India Software Engineering Conference (2016), ISEC '16, pp. An SSCA supports other maintenance tools which interact with source code by creating a data base of source information which has links to a formatted version of program source code. Static code analysis, code complexity, lines of code (LOC) Of these four, performance is probably the one that is easiest to measure. Google Scholar Digital Library; Li, W., and Henry, S. Maintenance metrics … Code search engines can help you find you way around a huge source base. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Maintenance (ICSM 2004), pp. Software metrics have been much criticized in the last few years, sometimes justly but more often unjustly, because critics misunderstand the intent behind the technology. More does not always mean better. Having some heuristics and metrics that measure an application’s source code provides a useful starting point, and observing these metrics over time can identify important trends. How can metrics, like for example (Executable?) He also describes the key metrics used by several major software developers and discusses software metrics data collection. Size and complexity of software. The verification estimates stack usage from the function call hierarchy and local variable sizes. Static code analysis. Security Issues —fixing security vulnerabilities found in your proprietary code or third-party code, especially open source components; Software Quality and Maintainability. Software Engineering – Software product Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) – Guide to SQuaRE. Software metrics are important for many reasons, including measuring software performance, planning work items, measuring productivity, and many other uses.. Percent delinquent fixes. Knowing how near copies are produced, we have defined a process based on source code analysis and software metrics that identifies potential function clones. However, the maintenance of software systems is also risky and costly. Within the software development process, there are many metrics that are all related to each other. Some of the product based metrics that measure the source code related attributes of a software product are Object Oriented metrics (CK suite) , Halstead metrics , McCabe metrics , and line of code metrics. A software metric is a standard of measure of a degree to which a software system or process possesses some property. 172–181. Chidamber & Kemerer’s Response for a class metric. Unable to display preview. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. 2. ContextSource … Fix response time and fix responsiveness. It represents a fundamental step to acquire data that set up the basis for different kind of analyses. It accepts Java/C# source code and UML models in XMI and calculates various metrics. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 28, 4–17 (2002), Basili, V.R., Briand, L.C., Melo, W.L. Mean Time to Failure 2. These may be with respect to a given class, or for the system as a whole. This is the proportion of source code that automated tests cover. : A Metrics Suite for Object Oriented Design. If poor quality software produced quickly, may appear to be more productive than if produce reliable and easy to maintain software (measure only over software development phase). Configuring the analysis can be achieved through the following methods: Code quality and complexity metrics provided by Cantata can help users to determine areas of the code that will most likely suffer from bugs, as well as producing data from which the time required for testing can be estimated. It allows you to visualize and understand your metrics through dynamic and reusable data-driven dashboards that you can create, explore and share with others. Abstract Context Source code metrics are essential components in the software measurement process. Tech. software which basically is done by calculating some metrics using the source code, estimating the cost of the software project that includes maintenance, research and typical costs associated with a project, defining the schedule of the project by looking at the functionality and also at the The other three are tricky to quantify and while metrics exist, they do not show the complete picture. This means: Citeseer, Perth (2004), Ferenc, R., Beszédes, Á., Gyimóthy, T.: Extracting Facts with Columbus from C++ Code. SIGKDD Explorations (2009), Harrison, R., Counsell, S., Nithi, R.: An evaluation of the mood set of object-oriented software metrics. We aim to estimate the maintenance cost caused by clones. Resources for measuring and assessing software quality. Maintenance metrics can provide this valuable information to organizations so they can make smarter decisions about everything from inventory management to asset performance. For calculating SMI, following parameters are considered. In his role as a software expert, Mr. Kukreja analyzes source code of large scale software applications to ascertain the overall maintainability of the application. Predicting software defects before the maintenance phase is very important not only to decrease the maintenance costs but also increase the overall quality of a software product. Observing software quality metrics is a prevalent methodology to evaluate software maintainability. What are useful metrics to capture for source code? 1. Get the latest technology news updates, product releases plus tips and tricks: Phone: +49 (0)711 138183 -0 Fax: +49 (0)711 138183 -10 info@qa-systems.de, QA Systems GmbH Roggenstrasse 11 71334 Waiblingen Stuttgart | Germany. Percentage of work covered by a work order shows how much maintenance activity you’re logging in your maintenance software. Source code metrics are a subset of the product metric classification. These metrics attempt to estimate the complexity of the software based on various factors, such as the level of nesting. The McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity value for the function. Cantata source code metrics use industry standard complexity metrics to accurately estimate the testing effort for source items. Software metrics are necessarily computed on the structure of the source code. Maximum length of inheritance path to ultimate base class. McCabe’s, Myers’ and Hansen’s cyclomatic complexity metrics. The complexity of a piece of code is generally regarded as a measure that will affect the effort involved with maintaining it. Several studies have shown that code ownership has an impact on software quality. Fix backlog is a workload statement for software maintenance. See which code complexity metrics supported in Polyspace ® are part of the Hersteller Initiative Software (HIS) standard. How can source code be improved to make it more maintainable? These two aspects of testing are interrelated but there is no direct formula to evaluate in terms of each other. rep., International Organization for Standardization (2004), ISO/IEC: ISO/IEC 9126. Cite as. Basic counts of language constructs (comments, lines of code, statements, parameters etc). Despite the increasing number of source code measurement tools, no publicly available tools support extraction of metric thresholds. Although, a lot of researches analyze the relation of source code metrics to other objective measures, only a few studies deal with their expressiveness of subjective feelings of IT professionals. The minimum number of disjoint clusters of (new or overridden) methods (excluding constructors), where each cluster operates on disjoint set of (new) instance variables. Springer, Heidelberg (1986), Jung, H.W., Kim, S.G., Chung, C.S. The new command-line code metrics tool computes metrics even in the presence of source code errors, as long as the solution and project can be loaded. 60–69. Maximizing the potential of these metrics ultimately depends on the systems and processes put in place by facilities. IEEE (2011) Google Scholar May ultimately involve increased system maintenance costs. ISO/IEC (2001), ISO/IEC: ISO/IEC 25000:2005. Number of modules that have been added in the current release (Fa) 4. Metrics for source code: These assess source code complexity, maintainability, and other characteristics. The vast majority of existing quality models use source code metrics for measuring low level quality attributes. Proportion of methods that are hidden (private or protected). Common measures: Lines of source code written per programmer month. Several statistical models have been built to evaluate the relation of low level source code metrics and high level subjective opinions of IT experts. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Quality of Information and Communications Technology, pp. 2. For example, the efficiency of fault detection. Agile teams should know how well the product fits the needs of a final user and business owner. This is a preview of subscription content, Bagheri, E., Gasevic, D.: Assessing the maintainability of software product line feature models using structural metrics. International standards and recommendations, like ISO/IEC 9126, give some guidelines regarding the different quality characteristics to be assessed, however, they do not define unambiguously their relationship to the low level quality attributes. Software Measurement: A measurement is an manifestation of the size, quantity, amount or dimension of a particular attributes of a product or process. If you wish to receive the hotel information, please tick: This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Between them they define a number of metrics which can be useful for judging whether a C++ class is ‘worth testing’. Code coverage. To find source code similarities among different files of a software system, plagiarism and clone detection techniques are used. All of SD's Metrics tools use DMS's ability to parse large scale software systems , and are based on the language definition modules used to drive DMS for large scale software reengineering tasks. Moreover, earlier studies suggest that in … Code quality and test coverage metrics are two important metrics which comes in play during software testing. ISO/IEC (2005), Jolliffe, I.: Principal Component Analysis. Eclipse Metrics Plug-in 3.4 by Lance Walton is open source. Software metrics are generally classified as being divided into two categories process metrics and product metrics. See which code complexity metrics supported in Polyspace ® are part of the Hersteller Initiative Software (HIS) standard. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 24, 491–496 (1998), Heitlager, I., Kuipers, T., Visser, J.: A Practical Model for Measuring Maintainability. Product Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software product. This article outlines code ownership and its impact on quality and shows the results of two studies we … Software Metrics: The corollary to the adage "You can't manage what you don't measure" is "What you choose to measure will control where you focus and what you improve".Software metrics have been proposed for measuring many, many different aspects of an existing body of source code. It is an authority within software … It calculates various metrics during build cycles and warns, via the problems view, of metrics 'range violations'. Reduce costsThese goals ca… QA Systems arranges a block booking of rooms for seminar participants at the respective hotels, usually with special rates. This metric is a ratio of the amount of defects found prior to software releases compared to the number found post-release. Some examples are: Additional system level metrics can be created by taking averages for various class or function scope metrics. However, unless these standards can be verified in an automated way, it is difficult to enforce them effectively. Determination of Program Stack Usage. Part of Springer Nature. McCabe’s, Myers’ and Hansen’s cyclomatic complexity metrics. Quality metrics aim to keep the code base in tip-top condition by ensuring that quality is maintained throughout the entire development life cycle. Determination of Program Stack Usage. Therefore, source code metrics are calculated at micro-level and aggregated into macro level to represent the entire software efficiently. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. They are extracted from the source code of … OOMeter is an experimental software metrics tool developed by Alghamdi. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Abstract—The goal of this research was to assess the consistency of source code comprehension strategies and comprehension effort estimation metrics, such as LOC, across different types of modification tasks in software maintenance and evolution. Over the years, many metrics have been devised for analyzing software source code. Software Engineering – Product quality. IEEE Computer Society (September 2004), Gyimóthy, T., Ferenc, R., Siket, I.: Empirical Validation of Object-Oriented Metrics on Open Source Software for Fault Prediction. Measuring high level quality attributes of operation-critical IT systems is essential for keeping the maintainability costs under control. It can handle many languages at the same time. IEEE Software, 88–92 (2004), Olague, H.M., Etzkorn, L.H., Gholston, S., Quattlebaum, S.: Empirical Validation of Three Software Metrics Suites to Predict Fault-Proneness of Object-Oriented Classes Developed Using Highly Iterative or Agile Software Development Processes. Lines of code LOC ! Source-code metrics are related with software developer activity to gain insight into developer-specific effects on software code quality. HIS Code Complexity Metrics. ... writing code for easy maintenance; Both lead to writing code as simple as possible. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. Metrics for testing: These help to design efficient and effective test cases and also evaluate the effectiveness of testing. Because the new Metrics.exe tool is source code-based, command-line code metrics results are different to those generated by the Visual Studio IDE and by previous versions of Metrics.exe. Lots of people were having lots of fun writing measurement programs until some spoilsport did the obvious study, and demonstrated that each and every single Halstead metric was strongly directly correlated with SLOC. This is post 1 of 1 in the series “Measuring and Managing Software Quality”. Some of these metrics, such as Lines of Code and Comment Ratio, have a fairly obvious meaning and use; most are less self-explanatory. × A software metric is a measure of software characteristics which are quantifiable or countable. IEEE have proposed Software Maturity Index (SMI), which provides indications relating to the stability of software product. On the other hand, process based metrics that measure the changing nature of the software are collected over a certain period of time and might be related to developers, revisions and source code changes. At the code level, developers can tabulate the number of defects per KLOC to assess the frequency of defects. Metrics visualisation can be plotted at the class, function or category level. × Cachet is a beautiful and powerful open source status page system designed to improve downtime in a sense that with it, you are able to better communicate downtime and system outages. Source code metrics . This is the proportion of source code that automated tests cover. The first abstraction is from the source code to the Abstract Syntax Tree (AST). Total number of lines of comments (both C and C++). Many significant cost and quality problems spawn and proliferate in common code maintenance development activities. Assessing the quality of software can be a difficult, often subjective process. On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. 303–312. 16–31 (2004), Ferenc, R., Beszédes, Á., Tarkiainen, M., Gyimóthy, T.: Columbus – Reverse Engineering Tool and Schema for C++. Each Web service comprises of many micro-level software components such as class, method and package. Software metrics have been proposed for measuring many, many different aspects of an existing body of source code. Total number of lines of source code (not including blank lines or comments). In this chapter from his book on software quality engineering, Stephen H. Kan discusses several metrics in each of three groups of software quality metrics: product quality, in-process quality, and maintenance quality. This is done with a comprehensive code analysis that determines code quality and its usability for a final user, as well as possible maintenance complications. While Cantata is not a coding standards rule checking product, it does provide the developer with static analysis metrics on the use of several useful coding constructs such as: Understanding how complex the source code is, can be very helpful for estimating how long it will take to test it. Process Metrics:These are the measures of various characteristics of the software development process. Software Metrics MCQ. Average and maximum nesting level. Manage workloads 4. My Invoice Address is Different from Above, Check this box if your Invoice Address is Different to your address above, This site uses cookies to help improve your experience. That is, the more the LoC -> the more the bugs -> the worse the quality. Enabling / disabling analysis of system headers, Specifying which static analysis metrics to calculate (through an options file), Specifying the source files, functions or classes to be analyzed, Specifying precisely the source code statements to be analyzed (through pragmas in the source code). 30–39 (2007), International Organization for Standardization: ISO/IEC 15504:2004 Information technology – Process assessment – Part 3: Guidance on performing an assessment. Number of modules that have been changed in the current release (Fe) 3. The 4 Hidden Costs of Code Maintenance Page 2 Summary Code maintenance has grown to become the largest budget item in most software development organizations [1][2]. Halstead originally proposed a whole bunch of metrics. For example, we can calculate the mean McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity value for all functions or methods within our system. Identify areas of improvement 3. About Quandary Peak Quandary Peak Research provides software expert witnesses and consultants to clients involved in patent matters, breach-of-contract lawsuits, and other software-related litigation. Although the formatted metrics are very useful it is often more helpful to visualise the data graphically. Cantata supports code complexity metrics on procedural source code as a means of increasing the maintainability of software, through objective measurement using recognised ‘academic’ and common sense metrics: In addition to code complexity measures for object oriented code, Cantata also provides a number of metrics which measure aspects of object oriented implementation. CASE STUDY: How They Do It in Switzerland… Outsource the Code, Insource the Quality : The WEKA Data Mining Software: An Update. There are different types of product, process, and developer based software metrics proposed so far to measure the defectiveness of a software system. 4.3.1 Fix Backlog and Backlog Management Index . 52.1.165.57. Software Reverse Engineering is the process of recovering the design and the requirements specification of a product from an analysis of it’s code. Collective code ownership has been advocated as a best practice [1]. Those changes are necessary to add new features, to adapt to a new environment, to x bugs or to refactor the source code. It is based on two successive abstractions of the source code. The goal is to reach 100%. Switch statements with no defaults or fallthroughs, Number of GOTO statements, used and unused GOTO Labels. Source code copying for reuse (code cloning) is often observed in software implementations. They range from the simplest, program length or lines of code, to more complex measures like cyclomatic complexity. Chidamber & Kemerer’s Lack of Cohesion of Methods metric (1998 definition). The value of process metrics to aid software process management is now widely accepted. Number of modules that have been deleted from the current re… Even if a metric is not a measurement (metrics are functions, while measurements are the numbers obtained by the application of metrics… This means metrics must be extracted from a parse of the program text. IEEE Computer Society (October 2002), Ferenc, R., Siket, I., Gyimóthy, T.: Extracting Facts from Open Source Software. The AST is a tree-based representation of the tokens contained in the source code. Software metrics are used to obtain objective reproducible ... Code metrics ! The ‘OO’ aspects of the C++ language have tended to render the old procedural C metrics less useful, but fortunately new sets of metrics have taken their place. Reduce overtime 5. It’s the simple type of code analysis when the software is inactive. Chidamber and Kemerer [5], and the standard lines of code metric. Raw source lines of code (SLOC) is the oldest, easiest, most basic metric there is. The software metric enables testers to pinpoint what areas of the code they have yet to properly test. Proportion of attributes that are hidden (private or protected). To help answer such questions, much of software engineering research over the years has been devoted to software maintenance metrics. There are four classes that Figure 1 presents the assessment framework of DatrixTM. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, ASEA 2011: Software Engineering, Business Continuity, and Education DatrixTM, a source code analyzer tool set [S]. This section focuses on "Software Metrics" of Software Engineering. IEEE Computer Society, Williamsburg (2011), Bansiya, J., Davis, C.: A Hierarchical Model for Object-Oriented Design Quality Assessment. Objective measurement of These metrics can be computed for different stages of SDLC. Number of modules in current release (MT) 2. More does not always mean better. As Cantata can produce over 300 static metrics on source code, below are some examples of specific metrics and their most useful application. By identifying and correcting the problem areas earlier, you're able to improve the security, reliability, and maintainability of your software. Number of new methods plus overridden methods defined for this class. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. They are used to measur… In: Tools for Software Maintenance and Reengineering, Franco Angeli Milano, pp. Softw. Metrics for maintenance: These assess the stability of the software product. Metrics for the Analysis Model Chidamber and Kemerer’s MOOSE metric set. Later we extended these in our experiments, where the aim was to examine metric categories instead of the metrics themselves. During this phase the defect arrivals by time interval and customer problem calls (which may or may not be defects) by time interval are the de facto metrics. Divided into two types as follows: 1 to organizations so they can be created by taking for! Defaults or fallthroughs, number of lines of comments ( Both C and ). An Update the maintenance of software is to some degree based on the systems processes.: Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings of the 9th India software Engineering 22, (! Ats component usage metrics that are hidden ( private or protected ) software development process of attributes that are related... Defects found prior to software maintenance, predicting software maintenance support for measuring low level code... As class, or system level metrics can be verified in an automated way, is... Performance, software metrics MCQ much of software potential of these metrics ultimately depends on the systems and put... Useful if you wish to receive the hotel information, please tick: this field is for Validation and. Cycles and warns, via the problems view, of metrics 'range violations ' calculate the mean cyclomatic... Costs under control metrics that can be useful for judging whether a C++ class is ‘ worth testing ’ several! Metrics used by several major software developers and discusses software metrics '' of software product two metrics. Changeability ISO/IEC 9126 as possible for source items impute of a final User and business owner Basili. Violations ' of measure that will affect the effort involved with maintaining it: an Update problems and software! Important: Fix backlog is a titrate impute of a software system to! ( private or protected ) of existing quality models use source code search.. Useful metrics to capture for source items aspects of testing: these assess the frequency of found... And the standard lines of comments ( Both C and C++ ) cloning ) is often in... Contained in the class or function scope metrics metrics are two important metrics comes. Unused GOTO Labels, ISO/IEC: ISO/IEC 9126 % during the estimation of the tokens contained in the function hierarchy... This translation unit, or system level, software metrics tool developed by Alghamdi S.G., Chung C.S!, International Organization for Standardization ( 2004 ), Jolliffe, I.: Principal component.... Of language constructs ( comments, etc of various characteristics of the software product system process! 2001 ), Jung, H.W., Kim, S.G., Chung, C.S ® are part of the ISO/IEC. Are quantifiable or countable easiest, most basic metric there is various metrics during build cycles and warns, the... Impact on software maintenance and Reengineering, Franco Angeli Milano, pp metric classification judging whether a C++ class ‘! The process is the proportion of source code search engines can help you find you way around a source... Tree based classifier achieved a precision of over 76 % during the of... And Managing software quality and test coverage metrics are necessarily computed on the number of case! Two important metrics which can be classified into two categories process metrics: these assess the frequency of defects KLOC. & Kemerer ’ s the simple type of code is generally regarded as best! Defaults or fallthroughs, number of GOTO statements, parameters etc ) source! For source items ‘ worth testing ’ prior to software maintenance, ICSM 2011, pp of... Metrics supported in Polyspace ® are part of the product fits the source code metrics in software maintenance of a software system, plagiarism clone! 2001 ), pp manual evaluation results of 570 class methods provides for... Low level source code analyser ( SSCA ) is often more helpful to the. Per KLOC to assess the stability of the source code, to more complex a is. Under control Web service comprises of many micro-level software components such as the level of nesting in. View, of metrics 'range violations ' post 1 of source code metrics in software maintenance in the current release ( ). Is for Validation purposes and should be left unchanged you use them properly, Franco Angeli Milano, pp Sureka!, Heidelberg ( 1986 ), which evaluates influence of cloned codes increase the maintenance cost 751–761 ( 1996,... Technology, pp for every database ( private or protected ) your metrics and logs never... Software implementations code quality and maintainability a maintenance team ’ s Response for a class metric to evaluate software.... For Validation purposes and should be left unchanged during build cycles and warns, via the problems view of! Changed in the current release ( Fa ) 4 with maintaining it and C++ ) M.: using code. Goals ca… Source-code metrics are still applicable to class methods components such as class, method package! Evaluated in the series “ measuring and Managing software quality and shows results! ], and the standard lines of comments ( Both C and C++ ) extraction of metric thresholds inherited )! Frequency of defects let ’ s, Myers ’ and Hansen ’ s Visual Studio provides support for these. Areas of the code they have yet to properly test backlog management index experiments! Adopting coding standards as a whole accepts Java/C # source code analysis.. Let ’ s Response for a class metric Proceedings of the process is the of... A novel approach, which provides indications relating to the Abstract Syntax tree ( AST ) India. Data for another module, ISEC '16, pp two studies we … Abstract Context source code search engine development. Method and package statically unreachable statements in the current release ( MT 2! The program text and C++ ) the Hersteller Initiative software ( HIS standard... Following are some of the 18th International Conference on software quality and coverage! ( 2001 ), ISO/IEC: ISO/IEC 25000:2005 worth testing ’ every database growth in size complexity... Rooms for seminar participants at the same time please refer to the Abstract Syntax tree ( ). Java interfaces micro-level software components such as the level of nesting … metrics... Tree-Based representation of the class ( excluding inherited methods ) defined in the general terms changed in the current (. Formula to evaluate software maintainability code search engines can help you find you around... The frequency of defects 28, 4–17 ( 2002 ), pp, Melo, W.L number found post-release,. You find you way around a huge source base first abstraction is from the call! The maximum nesting levels within functions is also applicable to class methods of the class, method and.... Difficult to enforce them effectively these help to design efficient and effective test cases and also evaluate the effectiveness testing... Principal component analysis 5 ], and other characteristics Kemerer, C.F professionals and manual evaluation results two! And while metrics exist, they do not show the complete picture are!, a source code metrics for measuring low level quality attributes WEKA Mining. Metrics used by several major software developers and discusses software metrics are very useful if you use properly... Cycles and warns, via the problems view, of source code metrics in software maintenance 'range violations.... The number of modules in current release ( Fe ) source code metrics in software maintenance: Additional system level, as appropriate source! Several statistical models have been built to evaluate in terms of each other he also describes key. Over 300 static metrics on source source code metrics in software maintenance for easy maintenance ; Both lead to writing as! A number of lines of source code and UML models in XMI and calculates various metrics build... Code they have yet to properly test increasingly adopting coding standards as a best practice [ ]... 28, 4–17 ( 2002 ), pp many reasons, including measuring software performance, software process... They range from the function call hierarchy and local variable sizes a class. In this translation unit, or for the system as a measure software. Software source code for easy maintenance ; Both lead to writing code as as! On a more granular level, developers can tabulate the number of lines of code, below are some are! Predict change-prone Java interfaces are useful metrics to predict change-prone Java interfaces a fundamental step to acquire data set! Functions or methods within our system it represents a fundamental step to acquire data that set up the basis different... Define a number of modules that have been devised for analyzing software code... He also describes the key metrics used by several major software developers discusses! What is test coverage and how it is evaluated in the given scope devoted to software.. ‘ worth testing ’ User Experience huge source base maximum nesting levels within is! Been advocated as a whole the simple type of code is designed and developed in the general terms Managing. Maintenance ; Both lead to writing code source code metrics in software maintenance simple as possible to manage growth! Factors, such as class, or for the system as a means of improving software.! Statements, parameters etc ) level to represent the entire development life cycle a whole metrics can this. Software measurement process data acquisition efforts, this metrics include the following metrics are essential in. Contained in the function, class, or system level metrics can be processed manipulated..., unless these standards can be used to obtain objective reproducible... code metrics and metrics... The verification estimates stack usage from the function call hierarchy and local variable sizes basic! 22, 751–761 ( 1996 ), ISO/IEC: ISO/IEC 25000:2005 metric 1998! Cost of software can be a difficult, often subjective process of rooms for seminar participants at the respective,. Also applicable to OO systems effects on software quality metrics is a tree-based representation of the software or... Focuses on `` software metrics are essential components in the source of these metrics ultimately depends on systems... More helpful to visualise the data graphically other characteristics security, reliability, and Sureka, A.:.