[34][35], Politics at the federal level were also in flux. It witnessed particular changes to the built environment and social structures of Montreal, Québec's leading city. While visiting Montreal for Expo 67, General Charles de Gaulle proclaimed Vive le Québec libre! This was a massive shift away from the Duplessis era in which Québec's abundant natural resources were hardly utilized. [2][3] Soon after Duplessis' death, the June 1960 provincial election installed the Liberal provincial government of Jean Lesage, and the Quiet Revolution began. The inevitable question: why consider religion in schools? All this hatred and differences started in the past, and this Quiet revolution, right after a new Liberal government led by Jean Lesage came in 1960. Maurice Duplessis, who was Premier from 1944-1959, and was repeatedly taken to court for discriminatory actions against Jehovah’s Witnesses, who were (and remain) a religious minority within Quebec (Seljak). Whereas in 1971, only 5 per cent of Canadians were unaffiliated with any religion, by 2011 that number had risen to 24 per cent. French-Canadians in Québec also adopted the new name 'Québécois', trying to create a separate identity from both the rest of Canada and France and establish themselves as a reformed province. It demonstrated the strength and initiative of the Québec government and was a symbol of the ingenuity of Québécois in their capability to complete such an ambitious project. [5] Until the second half of the 20th century, the majority of Francophone Québec workers lived below the poverty line,[citation needed] and Francophones did not join the executive ranks of the businesses of their own province. The Quiet Revolution The year, 1960, marks a key transition point in the history of Quebec and the Catholic Church in that Province. Secularism became a feature of the subsequent nationalist movement, and continues to be a part of contemporary Quebecois identity (Seljak). Section 1", "La révolution tranquille, rupture ou tournant? [citation needed] The level of formal schooling among French-Canadians was quite low: only 13% finished grade 11, as opposed to 36% of English Canadians. In 1966, the National Medicare program was created. [48] He was also one of the key politicians responsible for National League of baseball granting Montreal a franchise, the now-defunct Montreal Expos. In addition, until the Quiet Revolution, higher education was accessible to only a minority of French Canadians because of the generally low level of formal education and the expense involved. Quiet Revolution, period of rapid social and political change experienced in Québec during the 1960s. [15], In the 2003 article "Where Have All the Children Gone? Each is always arguing and accusing the other of wrong doings. During the Quiet Revolution, English Canadians lost their control over the Quebec economy , the Roman Catholic Church became less important, and the Quebec government took over the hydro-electric companies. [9] Additionally, more emphasis was placed on the hard sciences, and there was now work for the Québécois who had previously needed to leave the province in order to find jobs in their preferred fields. Many Abori… [36][37] In 1961, Prime Minister Diefenbaker instituted the National Hospital Insurance Plan, the first public health insurance plan adhered to by all the provinces. [27] The historiography of the period has been notably explored by Ronald Rudin, who describes the legacy of the Lesage years in the depiction of what preceded them. The Quiet Revolution has kept only two of those pillars— language and culture — as bases of Quebec’s new projet de societe. Despite a series of reforms with Vatican II in 1962, the Catholic Church was losing ground in Quebec during the era of the Quiet Revolution The Beginning of a New Era - The Decline of the Catholic Religion In the 2011 census, 39 per cent of Canadians identified themselves as Roman Catholic and 27 per cent as Protestant. ", LeMay. In fact, Supreme Court of Canada cases such as Saumur v. City of Quebec and Roncarelli v. Duplessis were some of the first cases to tackle the idea of individual ‘rights’ in Canad, an idea which would later birth the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Mullan). [36], Federal politics were further influenced by the election of Pierre Elliot Trudeau in 1968. Everyday Sacred: Religion in Contemporary Quebec, edited by Hillary Kaell. A revolution or a natural course of action? The Quiet Revolution combined declericalization with the dramatic reforms of Vatican II. ", published in the academic journal Canadian Studies in Population by Professor Catherine Krull of Queen's University and Professor Frank Trovato of The University of Alberta, point to the decline in influence of the Roman Catholic Church over the lives of French-Canadians as one of the causes of the great reduction in the TFR during the Quiet Revolution. The revolution redefined Quebec’s culture as it is accepted today and promoted the rise of the French middle class. In 1968, the sovereigntist Parti Québécois was created, with René Lévesque as its leader. For example, Cuccioletta and Lubin raised the question of whether it was an unexpected revolution or an inevitable evolution of society. [7][8] Some scholars argue that the rise of the Québec sovereignty movement during the 1970s is also part of this period.[6]. More public institutions were created to follow through with the desire to increase the province's economic autonomy. [27], Several arguments support this view. A small faction of Marxist sovereignists began terrorist actions as the Front de libération du Québec, the zenith of their activities being the 1970 October Crisis, during which British diplomat James Cross as well as Labour Minister Pierre Laporte were both kidnapped by FLQ cells, with Laporte eventually being killed. The conservative approach of the Catholic Church was the major force in Quebec society until the reforms of the Quiet Revolution during the 1960s. Lesage had an excellent team of cabinet ministers which included Rene Levesque. [49] Another of Drapeau's major projects was obtaining and holding the 1976 Summer Olympics.[50]. This strategy, however, proved weak as Québec's natural resources were exploited for little profit. After Duplessis’ death in 1959, the Liberal Party of Quebec ran on a platform of change and won the 1960 election (CBC). [22] Section 2", "The Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act: Its Impact on Hospital Administration", "Trudeau's Omnibus Bill: Challenging Canadian Taboos", "Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution (1960–1966)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quiet_Revolution&oldid=993185000, Articles lacking reliable references from September 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cuccioletta, Donald, and Martin Lubin. Instead, it gave people the freedom to practice informally, experimentally, and on their own terms. The Quiet Revolution typically refers to the efforts made by the Liberal government of Jean Lesage (elected in 1960), and sometimes Robert Bourassa (elected in 1970 after the Union Nationale's Daniel Johnson in 1966), though given the profound effect of the changes, most provincial governments since the early 1960s have maintained an orientation based on core concepts developed and implemented in that era. The Quiet Revolution of the 60s and 70s, which saw the rapid modernization of Québec, also saw its secularization. “Roncarelli v. Duplessis and damages for abuse of power: for what did it stand in 1959 and for what does it stand in 2009?”, Seljak, David Seljak. This vivid yet paradoxical description of the period was first used by an anonymous writer in The Globe and Mail. All this hatred and differences started in the past, and this Quiet revolution, right after a new Liberal government led by Jean Lesage came in 1960. [17], Seeking a mandate for its most daring reform, the nationalization of the province's electric companies under Hydro-Québec, the Liberal Party called for a new election in 1962. Documentaire québécois. "Quebec's Entrepreneurial Revolution and the Reinvention of Montreal: Why and How It Happened. Canadian Law and Religion: The Quiet Revolution. Canadian Wrongs: Reconciliation and Redress for Japanese-Canadians, Canadian Law and Canadian "Wrongs": The Chinese Head Tax, Canadian Wrongs: The Historical Context of the Chinese Head Tax, Canadian Wrongs: Redressing the Chinese Head Tax, Canadian Wrongs: Quebec's Attack on Jehovah's Witnesses, Canadian Wrongs: Jehovah's Witnesses before the Supreme Court of Canada, Canadian Wrongs: Jehovah's Witnesses and the Era of Rights, Canadian Wrongs: The Temporary Foreign Workers Program, Canadian Wrongs: Reforming the Temporary Foreign Workers Program, Canadian Women and the Law: A Selection of Cases, Indigenous Peoples and Treaties in Ontario, Indigenous Peoples and Canadian Law: Making Room for Wampum Belts, Indigenous Peoples and Canadian Law: Making Room for Oral Tradition, Canadian Law and Identity: Multiculturalism, Multiculturalism: Rooted in Bilingualism and Biculturalism, Multiculturalism: The Official Response to the Bi and Bi Commission, http://www.cbc.ca/archives/entry/jean-lesage-elected-premier-of-quebec, ← Canadian Law and Religion: Confederation, Canadian Law and Religion: The Charter Era →. Each is always arguing and accusing the other of wrong doings. Noted Québec historian Jacques Rouillard [fr] took this revisionist stance in arguing that the Quiet Revolution may have accelerated the natural evolution of Quebec’s francophone society rather than having turned it on its head. [24] Gauvrea raised the issues of religious factors, and of the changes going on inside the Catholic Church. ", David Seljak, "Why the quiet revolution was ‘Quiet’: the Catholic church’s reaction to the secularization of nationalism in Quebec after 1960. That period, known as the Quiet Revolution, is remembered in part for the awakening of a modern national consciousness in Quebec. Despite the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, when the role of the Catholic Church was considerably diminished, Québec society retains the cultural residue of Catholicism. Beheading the Saint analyzes the genesis and transformation of national identity in Québec from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, with specific attention to the secularization of French Canadianness during the 1960s’ Quiet Revolution. It made unionizing much easier and gave public employees the right to strike. Quebeckers used to follow the Catholic Church leaders closely, when it came to politics and religion. That period, known as the Quiet Revolution, is remembered in part for the awakening of a modern national consciousness in Quebec. Once a child has been permitted to attend an English primary or high school, the remaining children in that family are also granted access. "Montreal's Economy Since 1930," in, Tanguay. It is generally accepted that the revolution ended before the October Crisis of 1970, but Québec society has continued to change dramatically since then, notably with the rise of the sovereignty movement, evidenced by the election of the sovereignist Parti Québécois (first in 1976 by René Lévesque),[6] the formation of a sovereignist political party representing Québec on the federal level, the Bloc Québécois (founded in 1991 by Lucien Bouchard),[6] as well as the 1980 and 1995 sovereignty referendums. [28], Rouillard also argues that traditional portrayals of the Quiet Revolution falsely depict it as the rise of Liberalism in Québec. Quiet Revolution, period of rapid social and political change experienced in Québec during the 1960s. One of the most scathing attacks on the educational system was levelled by Brother Jean-Paul Desbiens, writing under the pseudonym of Frère Untel. It took measures to increase Québécois control over the province's economy and nationalized electricity production and distribution and worked to establish the Canada/Québec Pension Plan. "Impact of the Quiet Revolution: the business environment of smaller cities and regions of Quebec 1960-2000.". In Quebec, laïcité, a principle rooted in the French Revolution, is more broadly understood as protection of state from religion. Duplessis' policy was to sell off untransformed natural resources at bargain prices in order to create more employment in Québec's regions. Buoyed by significant manufacturing demand during World War I and World War II, the Québec economy was already expanding before the events of the Quiet Revolution. The bill also restricted the eligibility for elementary and high school students to attend school in English, allowing this only for children of parents who had studied in English in Québec. 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