Nevertheless, they continue to show that specific cyber security policies are taken on only by a very small minority of organisations. Businesses in the finance and insurance sector (34%) and information and communications sector (25%) are more likely than average (15%) to monitor immediate supplier risks. ↩, Inflation is assumed to be 1.5% since the 2019 survey, 3.7% since the 2018 survey and 6.6% since the 2017 survey, based on ONS data. The Cyber Security Breaches Survey is an official statistics publication and has been produced to the standards set out in the Code of Practice for Official Statistics. There was sometimes uncertainty about the target audience within an organisation for the Small Business Guide and Small Charity Guide – whether they were aimed at management boards, technical staff or wider staff. This year, the question wording has been changed significantly, to understand whether those who do not have a specific policy might still be covered for cyber security breaches, as part of a wider insurance policy. Table 5.2: Average direct cost of the most disruptive breach or attack from the last 12 months. The extent of cyber security threats has not diminished. The "sophisticated and potentially serious cyber-attack" was "resolved in under 48 hours", said a spokesman. Reporting a live cyber attack 24/7. Temporary loss of access to files or networks, damaged software or systems, and lost money are the most commonly reported outcomes. We do, nevertheless, isolate and discuss the cases that had a material outcome, such as a loss of money, assets or other data. This means that the increases from 2018 (when just 35% of businesses and 38% of charities had staff assigned this specific job role) have been maintained. As the chart shows, the sectors where firms are most likely to seek out information are the professional, scientific and technical, and finance and insurance sectors. ↩, In previous years of the survey, the mining and quarrying sector was also excluded from the business sample. Examples included moving data to remote or cloud servers, starting to submit tax returns online (as part of the government’s Making Tax Digital initiative), migrating to new software or systems like Office 365 or Windows 10, and digitising aspects of the services they delivered. 43% for forensic analysis). The full list is shown in Figure 4.5. For example, for a question where 50% of the 1,348 businesses sampled in the survey give a particular answer, the chances are 95 in 100 that this result would not vary more or less than 3.5 percentage points from the true figure – the figure that would have been obtained had the entire UK business population responded to the survey. This brief chapter covers the types of organisations that tend to be more exposed to risks in this way. Figure 4.13: Percentage of organisations that have undertaken action in half or all the 10 Steps guidance areas. UK consumers say they are receiving fraudulent emails, apparently from the sandwich chain's brand. Reporting can mean different things in different contexts. These questions have been removed for the 2020 study, to make space for new questions on cyber insurance and supplier risks. Large businesses were more likely to have each of these rules and processes in place than others. Some interviewees had also used the ICO website as an information source. It remains much rarer for micro and small businesses to have such documentation in place than it is for larger businesses. Geographic coverage: United Kingdom. • more businesses are seeking information and guidance on cyber security, more are taking action to identify cyber security risks, and more are managing these risks through a mixture of technical rules and controls, governance processes and policies than in 2016. Video caption: The New ‘Nigerian Princes’ of hacking? Three-quarters of charities say this about their senior management (74%, up from 53% in 2018). This may simply be a lack of awareness. BYOD has historically been more prevalent in charities than in businesses (since charities were first included, in the 2018 survey). It is worth noting that the trends over time for this question are similar to those for Figure 5.2. More specific research beyond this survey is needed to better assess whether the costs of breaches with outcomes have truly increased. The topic can be framed in many ways, including reporting to IT or cyber security providers as part of the incident response process, reporting financial losses to banks and insurance companies, public declarations to customers or suppliers, or reporting to wider authorities such as the police. Among the 46 per cent of businesses and 26 per cent of charities that have experienced breaches or attacks in the past 12 months, phishing attacks are considered by far the most disruptive types of attack that organisations face (Figure 5.3). However, there has been a move towards cloud backups. Charities are also less likely than businesses to have security controls on electronic devices or to restrict access to their own devices. Figure 6.5: Percentage of organisations that have done any of the following since their most disruptive breach or attack of the last 12 months, in cases where breaches had material outcomes. As with the changes in senior management attitudes, the bigger shift, between the 2018 and 2019 surveys, followed the introduction of GDPR. ↩, This category previously defined monitoring as organisations carrying out any monitoring of user activity or carrying out any business-as-usual health checks. Businesses in the food and hospitality sector are among the least likely to have each of these rules or controls in place. In previous years, we have also featured quantitative findings on investment in cyber security, as well as staff skills and training in this area. The proportion of charities reporting that they hold personal data about customers or beneficiaries rose between the 2018 and 2019 surveys (from 44% to 58%). Interviewees also offered some general thoughts around making guidance more useful: This chapter looks at the various ways in which organisations are dealing with cyber security. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated, Chapter 2: Profiling UK businesses and charities, Chapter 5: Incidence and impact of breaches or attacks, Chapter 6: Dealing with breaches or attacks, Annex B: Guide to statistical reliability,, National Cyber Security Strategy 2016–2021, Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance and support, Transparency and freedom of information releases, Information risk management regime – formal cyber security policies and the board are kept updated on actions taken, Secure configuration – organisation applies software updates when they are available, Network security – network firewalls (response option wording changed in 2020), Managing user privileges – restricting IT admin and access rights to specific users, User education and awareness – formal policy covers what staff are permitted to do on the organisation’s IT devices (definition changed in 2020), Incident management – any incident management process (response option wording changed in 2020), Malware protection – up-to-date malware protection, Monitoring – monitoring user activity or using security monitoring tools (definition changed in 2020), Removable media controls – policy covers what can be stored on removable devices, Home and mobile working – policy covers remote or mobile working, Across organisations identifying any breaches or attacks, Only across organisations identifying breaches with an outcome. For finance and insurance, and information and communications businesses, this pattern is reflected in DCMS’s recent cyber sectoral analysis, which showed that cyber security products and services are very commonly targeted at these sectors. The business findings show a small increase in BYOD this year (53%, vs. 44% in 2019). Financial audits by external accountants generated an annual report that would be discussed at a board level. As such, several interviewees did not see how the cyber security of these wider suppliers was their responsibility or concern. The chart also highlights sectoral differences, with information and communications businesses, professional, scientific and technical businesses, and administration and real estate firms all more likely than average to have identified breaches or attacks. For medium and large firms, this average cost is higher, at £5,220. However, there have been significant changes over the past four years that suggest an evolution in the mix of breaches that organisations are experiencing – moving away from malware and more towards fraud. Figure 4.12: Percentage of organisations that have each of the following features in their cyber security policies, among those that have policies. “Hacking isn’t considered terrorism in our general insurance policy … The wording is much clearer, in terms of the risk cover, the profile and the definitions in the separate policy compared to the general one.”. more than a day). This year, the incidence of breaches or attacks on businesses (46%) has reverted to similar levels seen in both 2018 (43%) and 2017 (46%). The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) was raised as somewhere to report breaches. An incident in 2018 had "significant impacts" on the organisation for several weeks, and smaller impacts that continued for months. Since 2016, the proportion of businesses where board members have a cyber security brief has increased. The mean and median scores exclude “don’t know” and “refused” responses. Figure 4.5: Percentage of organisations that have the following rules or controls in place. They tend to reflect that small and medium businesses are the ones most likely to outsource parts of their cyber security to external cyber security providers (which we cover in Chapter 4), and that these providers turn out to be a very common source of information and guidance for the organisation. As Figure 4.3 shows, across all size bands, this is more likely to be through a broader insurance policy, rather than one that is cyber-specific. However, this year’s study makes the following changes: The report flags any changes that mean findings are no longer comparable with previous years (i.e. Not all these audits focused solely on cyber security. What constitutes an audit is something we explored in the qualitative research and is covered in the next section. In line with previous years, while most organisations have certain technical controls such as secure configurations, firewalls and malware protection, they are less likely to have formal cyber security policies – particularly ones covering home working or what can be stored on removable devices. ↩, The mean long-term cost estimate for large businesses identifying any breaches or attacks is, counterintuitively, higher than for large businesses identifying breaches or attacks with a material outcome. More than nine million people may have had their details stolen in the 2018 cyber-attack. reporting meant different things in different contexts – reporting to IT or cyber security providers as part of incident response, reporting financial losses to banks and insurance companies, public declarations to customers or suppliers, or reporting to wider authorities. 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