By the end of 2019 water storage in the Northern Murray–Darling Basin had dropped to less than 7% of capacity. Darwin had its seventh-driest wet season over 2018–19, and a late start to the 2019–20 wet season. Temperature ; Mean maximum temperature (°C) 31.2: 31.6: 29.6: 25.9: 22.3: 19.5: 18.5: 19.1: … Further property losses occurred during the month in both New South Wales and Queensland, and several lives were lost in New South Wales. In the region near Tenterfield, on 9 October the Long Gully Road fire near Drake joined with the western edge of the Busbys Flat fire near Rappville. All of the capital cites, except Darwin and Perth, observed warmer than average annual mean minimum temperatures, though none set a new record. The annual mean temperature was in the highest 10% of historical observations for most of the rest of Australia, except northern to central western Queensland. January was an exceptional month: Australia's warmest month on record for any time of the year, with the monthly mean temperature 2.90 °C above average. Major heatwaves affected northern and western Europe in late June and late July, extending into the Nordic countries later. The extreme heat during December also led to Australia's warmest week (week ending 24 December) and warmest month on record in terms of national area-averaged maximum temperature. Drought in Indonesia was associated with the most significant fire season since 2015. The mean temperature for the 10 years from 2010 to 2019 was the highest on record, at 0.86 °C above average, and 0.31 °C warmer than the 10 years 2000–2009. Several cold fronts brought significant rainfall and strong wind gusts to the South West Land Division (SWLD) between 6 and 11 June. More details can be found in the Special Climate Statement Widespread heatwaves during December 2018 and January 2019. Low visibility from the thick dust created hazardous road conditions and South Australian Police closed the Augusta Highway near Port Wakefield for a period. The Seasonal Climate Summary is prepared to list the main features of the weather in Australia
A hail storm in the Riverland District of South Australia on the evening of 4 November caused crop damage along a narrow band between Murray Bridge and Renmark. There was a fire during the second half of February in South West Western Australia, in the shires of Donnybrook–Balingup and Nannup. Australia has warmed by over one degree since 1910, with most of the warming occurring since 1950. In Perth, Western Australia, the daily average temperature ranges from 12 °C (54 °F) in July to 24 °C (75 °F) in January and February. A very strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) was one of the main influences on Australia's climate during 2019, and contributed to very low rainfall across Australia. The end of year period brought particularly challenging weather, with the FFDI for individual days the highest on record for December, and in some cases for any month, on 30 and 31 December over areas of southeastern Australia and Tasmania. See Special Climate Statement Severe fire weather conditions in southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales in September 2019. A number of stations set records for their warmest summer day in late December to early January in Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales, and South Australia, as did a few stations in Western Australia. For Darwin and Perth the annual mean minimum temperature was close to average. January is the hottest month in Adelaide with an average temperature of 23°C (73°F) and the coldest is July at 11°C (52°F) with the most daily sunshine hours at 10 in February. Moderate falls were reported in the highlands of New South Wales with many locations above about 600 m receiving settling snow on 10 and 11 August, including Orange, Guyra, Lithgow, higher parts of Canberra, the Barrington Tops, and the Blue Mountains, and widespread snow falling to lower levels in Victoria, including Mt Macedon and the Dandenong Ranges. Sea surface temperature values are provided for a boxed region around Australia (4–46 °S and 94–174 °E). On two consecutive days, the 17th and 18th, records were set for Australia's hottest day on record. Rainfall for the year was below to very much below average over most of Australia. using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Occasionally temperatures can soar to 40°C (104°F). Temperature values from the observational datasets commence in 1880 for NOAAGlobalTemp and GISTEMP and in 1850 for HadCRUT4, while the two reanalysis datasets commence in 1958 for JRA and 1979 for ERA. During the afternoon and early evening on 10 July cold fronts brought strong to gale force northwesterly winds to southern South Australia ahead of the front, followed by squally winds, heavy showers and thunderstorms with the passage of the front itself. The “long-term increasing trend in global air and ocean temperatures” was a factor in the hotter-than-average summer, the report said in October. Glencairn in the Gippsland high country recorded 38 mm of rain in one hour and Mount Wombat, near Euroa, recorded 26 mm in half an hour. A major influence on this drying has been the strengthening and extension of the subtropical high pressure ridge during winter, shifting many potential rain-bearing weather systems south of the Australian continent. Snow fell overnight in most parts of Canberra overnight of the 16th but had mostly melted by morning due to rain followed by warmer temperatures. December brought an exceptionally warm end to the year, with the month the warmest December on record for Australia, and amongst the ten warmest Decembers on record for the Northern Territory and all States except Tasmania. This dome of hot air over the continent brought extreme heat to many areas as weather systems, particularly troughs, introduced hot air into different regions, with little penetration of cooler air from the south to disrupt the hot continental air mass. Most automatic weather stations in the southeast of the country had their highest November mean wind speed on record (although in most cases this record only goes back 10 to 20 years), and several had their strongest November wind gust on record. SOURCE: State of the Climate, 2016. More details can be found in the report on tropical cyclone Oma. April rainfall was above average for parts of the Gascoyne in Western Australia, the Top End, inland Queensland and northwestern New South Wales; for the southeastern mainland the month was much drier than average. Rainfall for summer was below average for Australia as a whole, although the season contained marked contrasts across the country geographically and in the transition from a vey dry start to a wetter finish. Anomaly is the departure from the long-term (1961–1990) average. It was also below average for New South Wales; Victoria; most of Tasmania except the west; South Australia; and nearly all of Western Australia and the Northern Territory. SSTs around Australia have warmed by around one degree since 1910, similar to the increase in temperature observed over land. But the main distinctive feature of Australian summer is dry weather. It was Australia's second-warmest summer on record, with all three of the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures the second-warmest on record for the season, each coming in behind the record set last year (summer 2018–19). The national area-averaged maximum temperature on the 18th was 41.9 °C, a whole degree above the value for the 17th (40.9 °C). The system rapidly intensified and maintained category 4 strength between the 21st and 23rd as it moved southwest then south towards the Pilbara coast. In addition to the influence of natural drivers, Australia's climate is increasingly affected by global warming and natural variability takes place on top of this background trend. Additional fires started as spring progressed, with significant fires across much of eastern New South Wales, including on the outskirts of Sydney, in East Gippsland in Victoria, in the Alpine region, and in southeast South Australia. The wettest month is July with an average of 70mm of rain. Like the Australian climate, the climate of NSW varies greatly among different regions and from year to year. In the west, severe tropical cyclone Veronica caused major flooding in the coastal Pilbara during March. For a number of locations records were set for the warmest day for any time of the year. A large number of daily high temperature records for December, including some records for any month of the year. Australia weather. Time series of anomalies in sea surface temperature and temperature over land in the Australian region. Sydney enjoys a sunny climate with mild winters and warm summers, perfect for making the most of the outdoors.Plan ahead with this information on temperature and rainfall. More details on the fires and associated weather conditions can be found in Special Climate Statement Severe fire weather conditions in southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales in September 2019. Mean maximum temperatures for the month were highest on record for July over large areas of northwestern Australia, and also for parts of eastern New South Wales and adjacent southern Queensland. Above average annual SSTs have been observed for the Australian region for every year since 1995, and have been persistently high for the past decade. Some stations also observed record warm nights for summer in New South Wales in late December or late January, in Victoria and New South Wales in the first days of February, and in Queensland scattered across the season. A strong cold front produced a cold outbreak in southeast Australia from 7 August, bringing damaging winds, squally showers, and storms. The north-east of the state is dominated by summer rainfall, with relatively dry winters. Hail of such large sizes is very rare in Australia. Adelaide, Australia: Annual Weather Averages. Autumn lasts between March and May and experiences changeable weather, where summer weather patterns gradually take on the shape of winter patterns. Rainfall was below average in all the capital cities. Summer runs from December to March (average temperature 29°C), autumn throughout March to May, winter runs from June to August (average 13°C) and spring from September to November. There were around 30 fires were burning by 5 March. Australia's seasons are at opposite times to those in the northern hemisphere. Penny, and Trevor). The annual 2019 sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly for the Australian region was the equal-20th-highest on record; 0.32 °C above the 1961–1990 average based on data from the NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature dataset, ERSST v5. The national mean temperature for summer was 1.88 °C warmer than average. 10 am EST on Monday 2 March 2020. The mean maximum temperature was 2.11 °C warmer than average, and the mean minimum temperature was 1.64 °C warmer than average. Rainfall was generally below average over large areas of the country for the remainder of the year, and particularly low over mainland southern Australia from July onwards. Temperatures in the mid to high 40s were observed across large areas, in cases for several consecutive days, including at Perth where temperatures reached 40 to 41 degrees each day from the 13th to 15th. The fire was under control by the 26th and had burnt through over 13 000 hectares by the end of January though was still burning into February. The delayed northern Australian monsoon saw heat build over the north, which persisted through much of summer. There has been a significant decline in autumn and winter rainfall observed over southeast and southwest Australia including in higher rainfall parts of the Murray–Darling Basin in recent decades. It was Australia's second-warmest summer on record, with all three of the mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures the second-warmest on record for the season, each coming in behind the record set last year (summer 2018–19). Spring was the fifth-warmest on record for Australia as a whole, and was also Australia's driest spring on record. Some rain from this event made its way to Lake Eyre / Kati Thanda in South Australia, joining floodwaters from other events earlier in the year. 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