After excision of necrotic tissue, the wounds healed rapidly and without com … “We set out to discover whether the stage of development and gender of Potamotrygon rex, a freshwater stingray found in rivers throughout South America, influences the composition of its venom and its capacity to trigger an acute inflammatory response using mice as a model.Our results suggest that nociception is induced mainly by the toxins produced by young females,” Lima said. Fish venom: pharmacological features and biological significance. 60. Stingray venom is unique in its enzymatic composition and results in distinct soft tissue injury patterns. Also, recently, the venom gland transcriptome of a marine stingray, Neotrygon kuhlii, was generated8. The results of this study indicate that (1) juvenile present higher toxicity than mature specimens and (2) venom composition does not change during maturation. Based on my previous and current studies on stingray venom… Free Online Library: Stingray poisoning, a careless aspect in Mexico. Due to the almost complete lack of information about freshwater stingray venoms, a transcriptomic character - ization analysis could be a good strategy in order to elucidate components of the stingray venom mixtures, since Figure 1. Stingray venom can cause significant tissue necrosis, which can lead to delayed wound healing. With the composition varying even between individuals of the same species. Freshwater stingray venom varies according to sex and age June 05, 2019. J Proteomics. Gisha Sivan. 2014;109:188–98. The sting is used for self-defense. [ Links ] 61. The Xingu River ray, white-blotched river stingray, or polka-dot stingray (Potamotrygon leopoldi) is a species of freshwater fish in the family Potamotrygonidae.It is endemic to the Xingu River basin in Brazil and prefers rocky bottoms. Protein annotation was underpinned by a venom gland transcriptome. Characterization of a new bioactive peptide from Potamotrygon gr. Authors. to venom and increases the risk of subsequent wound infection. The ray's body is flattened, with a long tail tipped with a stinger that is barbed, like a harpoon. In one patient, the wound was allegedly inflicted by Dasyatis kuhlii, the blue-spotted stingray; in the other, by D. sephen, the cowtail ray. 9 Additionally, the venom causes local vasoconstriction and ischemia, which can contribute to delayed wound healing as well. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) June 2014 Journal of Proteomics 109 They are close relatives of sharks, and also have a cartilaginous skeleton. 10 There have been reports of chronic wounds secondary to stingray injuries. Stingray venom is unique in its enzymatic composition and results in distinct soft tissue injury patterns. Conceição K. et al. https://bcachemistry.wordpress.com/2014/05/28/chemistry-of- Two cases of stingray injury which caused extensive tissue necrosis are reported. The toxins that have been confirmed to be within the venom are cystatins , peroxiredoxin , and galectin . doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.06.004. In the present study, we performed the first comparison of venom toxicity and composition in two different maturity stages of the freshwater stingray P. leopoldi. The barb on this ray is for defense and contains venom that produces intense pain and sometimes paralysis in humans. the venom composition of the P. motoro stingray that can easily injure humans, providing information required for the development of safety and treatment measures. Peptides 30, 2191–9 (2009). 2014; 109 :188–198. Cardiotoxic effects have been demonstrated in humans and experimental animals, but stingray venom does not have anticoagulant, hemolytic, or neuromuscular-blocking properties. Here we performed a detailed transcriptomic characterization of the venom gland of the South American freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro. Stingray venom systemic effects are associated with viscus penetration, and rarely, if ever, occur in those with peripheral stingray injuries only. First published: 6 … Department of Marine Biology, Microbiology and Biochemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, 682016, India; Search for more papers by this author. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). However, studies demonstrating the influence of sex and maturation stage on the composition of stingray venom and its toxic effects are still scarce,” Lopes-Ferreira said. 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