To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. “implements Runnable” vs “extends Thread” in Java. Cassandra partitions data across the cluster using consistent hashing [11] but uses an order preserving hash function to do so. Consistent hashing uses an algorithm such that whenever a node is added or removed from a cluster, the number of keys that must be moved is roughly 1 / n (where n is the new number of nodes). Consistent hashing algorithm vary in how easy and effective it is to add servers with different weights. I wonder if your data is encoded differently in Python vs Java, since they both have different ideas of what the default string encoding should be. Consistent hashing uses an algorithm such that whenever a node is added or removed from a cluster, the number of keys that must be moved is roughly 1 / n (where n is the new number of nodes). Email server certificate valid according to CheckTLS, invalid according to Thunderbird. In order for consistent hashing to be effective it is important to have a hash function thatmixes well. If you have code that you have already written and that you are having trouble with, please include the relevant parts in your question. * Unlike {@link java.util.Map}, this class uses the convention that * values cannot be {@code null}—setting the * value associated with a key to {@code null} is equivalent to deleting the key * from the symbol table. I've bumped into consistent hashing a couple of times lately. It is based on a ring (an end-to-end connected array). they're used to log you in. The problem is that we can't get the PHP, Java and nginx implementations to work together, the PHP and Java consistent hashing algorithms don't seem to match. You can always update your selection by clicking Cookie Preferences at the bottom of the page. I needed a compatible Go implementation and came across this problem.What’s the Go equivalent of this line of C?It’s a trick question: you can’t answer it in isolation. To be specific, your design should include these functions: put(key, value): Insert a (key, value) pair into the HashMap.If the value already exists in the HashMap, update the value. Consistent hashing however is required to ensure minimisation of the amount of work needed in the cluster whenever there is a ring change. If these hashes are important for security, use a cryptographic hash. We use optional third-party analytics cookies to understand how you use GitHub.com so we can build better products. Does the Qiskit ADMM optimizer really run on quantum computers? The basic idea behind the consistent hashing algorithm is to hash both objects and caches using the same hash function. It is based on a ring (an end-to-end connected array). Hardware-accelerated CRC (labeled iSCSI CRC in the table) is the fastest hash function on the recent Core i5/i7 processors. Unlike our previous naive implementation, Consistent Hashing has … This basic hashing algorithm is definitively much better than the previous one, as it computes the object's hash code by just multiplying the hash codes of the name and email fields and the id. Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Consistent hashing is deceptively simple yet very powerful, but I didn’t quite understand what it was till I sat down and worked it out for myself. In consistent hashing the output range of a hash function is treated as a circular space or "ring" (i.e. The idea is to make each cell of hash table point to … Same consistent-hashing algorithm implementation for Java and Python program. Need your help. Does Natural Explorer's double proficiency apply to perception checks while keeping watch? Consistent Hashing is a clever algorithm that is used in high volume caching architectures where scaling and availability are important. Cassandra partitions data across the cluster using consistent hashing [11] but uses an order preserving hash function to do so. Let’s dive into it. Since it's a standard algorithm, you should get the same result in both languages. There are no guarantees for robustness or stability if used in production code. Next message: Java Library + Consistent Hashing Messages sorted by: Though it’s the most popular consistent hashing algorithm (or at least the most known), the principle is not always well understood. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Note that these aren't cryptographic hash functions, so they're fast but don't provide the same guarantees. Learn Hashing and Consistent hashing with this easy to understand video. Let’s dive into it. the largest hash value wraps around to the smallest hash value). @lvc's answer provides much more detail on these questions. The hash space is large, and is treated as if it wraps around to form a circle – hence hash ring. Andrew Xia 32,676 views. How are you calling them? Learn more. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. The process of creating a hash for each server is equivalent to placing it … Active 4 years ago. Consistent Hashing - Load Distribution 2160 0 Different Strategies Virtual Nodes Q… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. But these hashing function may lead to collision that is two or more keys are mapped to same value. That is, send more (or less) load to one server as to the rest. For more information, see our Privacy Statement. I spent a really long time thinking that you had used the standard JDK, Same consistent-hashing algorithm implementation for Java and Python program, http://weblogs.java.net/blog/tomwhite/archive/2007/11/consistent_hash.html, http://techspot.zzzeek.org/2012/07/07/the-absolutely-simplest-consistent-hashing-example/, Podcast 294: Cleaning up build systems and gathering computer history. Problem with Traditional Hashing : Once the Hash value is generated using hash function, those values are mapped to memory location/nodes/buckets and Traditional Hashing algorithm uses Modulo operation to do the task. What's the power loss to a squeaky chain? MD5 in Python and Java) equivalently? In consistent hashing, the servers, as well as the keys, are hashed, and it is by this hash that they are looked up. … Can someone just forcefully take over a public company for its market price? It is used in distributed storage systems like Amazon Dynamo and memcached.. Python's zlib.crc32 and Java's java.util.zip.CRC32, on the other hand, both give numeric results - but Java's is always an unsigned 64 bit number, while Python's (in Python 2) is a signed 32 bit number (in Python 3, its now an unsigned 32-bit number, so this problem goes away). GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Basic idea: each hash value is placed at a random position between [0, 1] each key is placed at a random position between [0, 1] then each key is mapped to the first hash value on its right. Since S2 does not have that key, we run into a cache miss. To use this code, provide the total no. A ring has a fixed-length. Consistent hash. I found python zlib.crc32 and Java CRC32 class didn't return the same value for the same key. download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio, http://www.tom-e-white.com/2007/11/consistent-hashing.html. Consistent Hashing is a distributed hashing scheme that operates independently of the number of servers or objects in a distributed hash tableby assigning them a position on a hash ring. they're used to gather information about the pages you visit and how many clicks you need to accomplish a task. You signed in with another tab or window. The java.math.BigInteger.intValue() converts this BigInteger to an int. Consistent Hashing is a distributed hashing scheme that operates independently of the number of servers or objects in a distributed hash table by assigning them a position on a hash ring. This can then be converted to bytes using its encode method, which takes (unsurprisingly) an encoding: From the Java side, there is an overloaded version of String.getBytes that takes an encoding - but it takes it as a java.nio.Charset rather than a string - so, you'll want to do: These will give you equivalent sequences of bytes in both languages, so that the hashes have the same input and will give you the same answer. Consistent Hashing is one of the most important algorithms to help us horizontally scale and manage any distributed system. In general terms, we can say that this is a reasonable hashCode() implementation, as long as we keep the equals() implementation consistent with it. It works particularly well when the number of machines storing data may change. Encoding issues come about particularly since you appear to be using Python 2 - Python 2's str type is not at all like Java's String type, and is actually more like a Java array of byte. This study mentioned for the first time the term consistent hashing. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. libconhash is a consistent hashing library which can be compiled both on Windows and Linux platforms, with the following features: High performance and easy to use, libconhash uses a red-black tree to manage all nodes to achieve high performance. To what do "dort" and "Fundsachen" refer in this sentence? By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. I tested with text keys, "-84942321036308", I get (195940655746834055544853328800610818493) for Python and (8357636395451350515) for Java. Consistent hashing was designed to avoid the problem of having to change the server assignment of every object when a server is added or removed. Implementation Consistent Hashing. There are three key pieces we need to implement: A Hash table like data structure which can simulate the key space or the hash Ring. Hashing is a fundamental concept of computer science.In Java, efficient hashing algorithms stand behind some of the most popular collections we have available – such as the HashMap (for an in-depth look at HashMap, feel free to check this article) and the HashSet.In this article, we'll focus on how hashCode() works, how it plays into collections and how to implement it correctly. Please note that this is for purely illustrative purposes only. Edit, attached Java (Google Guava lib used) and Python code I wrote. And you should post the code that isn't working. There are three key pieces we need to implement: A Hash table like data structure which can simulate the key space or the hash Ring. This study mentioned for the first time the term consistent hashing. libketama: Consistent Hashing library for memcached clients ... Ketama is an implementation of a consistent hashing algorithm, ... We've been using this in production for all our php installs and java services at Last.fm for around 10 days now. Java Library + Consistent Hashing Dustin Sallings dustin at spy.net Thu Nov 15 19:00:22 UTC 2007. Hence, you will discover the sources of the problem(s) you experience when answering these questions: do you provide the same binary input to both hash functions (e.g. What you do is create virtual nodes and make them onto the unit circle. Last.fm's ketama by Richard Jones was the first, and there is now a Java implementation by Dustin Sallings (which inspired my simplified demonstration implementation above). Java: http://weblogs.java.net/blog/tomwhite/archive/2007/11/consistent_hash.html Unlike our previous naive implementation, Consistent Hashing has N entries in the ring per node. What is “hashing” all about? Now, you may want to find a faster hashing algorithm. Consistent Hashing - Replication Key hosted AB … Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. You seem to be running into two issues simultaneously: encoding issues and representation issues. Now we will consider the common way to do load balance. Implement Consistent Hash Algorithm in Java. Ketama is a memcached client that uses a ring hash to shard keys across server instances. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. We can't help you with your code if you don't show it. The other issue you may have is representation, depending on which hash function you use. For completeness here is a simple implementation in Java. In hashing there is a hash function that maps keys to some values. Scaling from 1 to 2 nodes results in 1/2 (50 percent) of the keys being moved, the worst case. According to this analysis of hash functions: Murmur2, Meiyan, SBox, and CRC32 provide good performance for all kinds of keys. The aim is to create a consistent hashing algorithm implementation that might help a .Net/C# developer to visualize the process and gain some insight into its inner mechanics. The Naive Approach If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The consistent hash corrects the problem caused by the simple hashing algorithm used by carp, so that distributed hashing (DHT) can be really applied in the peer-to-peer environment. There are no guarantees for robustness or stability if used in production code. But Java's String.getBytes() isn't guaranteed to give you a byte array with the same contents as a Python str (they probably use compatible encodings, but aren't guaranteed to - even if this fix doesn't change things, it's a good idea in general to avoid problems in the future). Implementation. This conversion is analogous to a narrowing primitive conversion from long to int. Consistent hash was introduced by Karger et al in 1997 to address the re-hashing problem. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. ⇒⇒⇒WRITE-MY-PAPER.net ⇐⇐⇐ I love this site. Learn more, We use analytics cookies to understand how you use our websites so we can make them better, e.g. In consistent hashing the output range of a hash function is treated as a circular space or "ring" (i.e. There is an alternative algorithm for consistent hashing that is shorter, and that is much more efficient when there is a large numbers of servers. Consistent hashing first maps both objects and servers to the unit circle. consistent hashing enables scalability and availability consistent hashing allows you to scale up and down easier, and makes ensuring availability easier. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Consistent hashing Why you need consistent hashing. We use optional third-party analytics cookies to understand how you use GitHub.com so we can build better products. I have been using it since last year. Though it’s the most popular consistent hashing algorithm (or at least the most known), the principle is not always well understood. Hashing Implementation Details Hashing Implementation Details C; C++; Java; Python; C. C has nothing native for hashmap We need to write one ourselves. A ring has a fixed-length. Python crc32 is signed integer and Java return long. Edit, online implementations I have tried: If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The SHA-1 hash whether generated in java or python will be the same. 2009-01-14 One of the most important features needed to create a scalable memcached infrastructure is consistent hashing. So where's your code implementing those hash functions and what didn't work about them? You need to know these types and also C’s promotion rules:The answer is this:And the reason is because of C’s arithmetic promotion rules and because the 40.0 c… The open source Guava hashing library contributed by Google contains an implementation. It is interesting to note that it is only the client that needs to implement the consistent hashing algorithm - the memcached server is unchanged. Mass resignation (including boss), boss's boss asks for handover of work, boss asks not to. Nicolai Parlog explains how to do it correctly. Merriam-Webster defines the noun hash as “ Scaling from 1 to 2 nodes results in 1/2 (50 percent) of the keys being moved, the worst case. Consistent hashing is a strategy for dividing up keys/data between multiple machines. Do standard cryptographic hash functions like SHA-1 not meet your needs? An object is then mapped to the next server that appears on the circle in clockwise order. Windows 10 - Which services and Windows features and so on are unnecesary and can be safely disabled? Before I tell you about consistent hashing, you… If we use potentiometers as volume controls, don't they waste electric power? Consistent hashing employs a function (,) that defines an abstract notion of the distance between the keys and , which is unrelated to geographical distance or network latency.Each node is assigned a single key called its identifier (ID). If this BigInteger is too big to fit in an int, only the low-order 32 bits are returned. Let's get this straight: the same binary input to the same hash function (SHA-1, MD5, ...) in different environments/implementations (Python, Java, ...) will yield the same binary output. The problem is that we can't get the PHP, Java and nginx implementations to work together, the PHP and Java consistent hashing algorithms don't seem to match. Chain hashing avoids collision. the largest hash value wraps around to the smallest hash value). We (Dustin Sallings and Steve Yen mainly) did a lot of testing in spymemcached to ensure the hashing was the same between it and libketama in the most recent release. Why it is important to write a function as sum of even and odd functions? If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. MD5 in Python and Java)? Are there any algorithms with the same function of consistent hash? What's a great christmas present for someone with a PhD in Mathematics? I didn't see the MD5 hashing in Java and Python to be the same. 59:17. Why alias with having clause doesn't exist in postgresql. MD5 hash is the same for both Java and Python, but when try to implemnt consistent hashing for keys, it's different because of the different data types in Java and Python. What to do? They help in sharing different resources and capabilities to provide users with a single and integrated coherent network. Here’s how it works: This allows servers and objects to scale without affecting the overall system. The machine number chosen to cache object o will be: hash(o) mod n. Here, n is the total number of cache machines. In his sample code, the keys seem to be strings, so MD5 should function just fine. Your python example appears to be using MD5 hashes, which will be the same in both Java and Python. The algorithm does not only work in sharded systems but also finds its application in load balancing, data partitioning, managing server-based sticky sessions, routing algorithms, and many more. Design a HashMap without using any built-in hash table libraries. We have an app that the Python module will write data to redis shards and the Java module will read data from redis shards, so I need to implement the exact same consistent hashing algorithm for Java and Python to make sure the data can be found. Here is a simple hashing function that produces the same result on both python and java for your keys: You don't need a cryptographically secure hash for this. http://amix.dk/blog/post/19367. Consistent hash. MIT 6.854 Spring 2016 Lecture 3: Consistent Hashing and Random Trees - Duration: 59:17. I'm not familiar with Redis, but the Python example appears to be hashing keys, so I'm assuming we're talking about some sort of HashMap implementation. If so, you should check that you really are hashing the same string/keys/whatever. In a nutshell, consistent hashing is a solution for the rehashing problem in a load distribution process. Can I catch multiple Java exceptions in the same catch clause? Ketama is an implementation of a consistent hashing algorithm, meaning you can add or remove servers from the memcached pool without causing a complete remap of all keys. Python's hashlib (which is the preferred implementation of md5 and other cryptographic hashes since Python 2.5) is exactly compatible with Java's MessageDigest in this - they both give bytes, so their output should be equivalent. The first operation is to create the ring. Then give the initial no. There is an alternative algorithm for consistent hashing that is shorter, and that is much more efficient when there is a large numbers of servers. Consistent Hashing Implementation in Java. All objects in java inherit a default implementation of hashCode() function defined in Object class. What are some technical words that I should avoid using while giving F1 visa interview? Implementation Consistent Hashing. Here’s how it works: Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and When could 256 bit encryption be brute forced? Millions of developers and companies build, ship, and maintain their software on GitHub — the largest and most advanced development platform in the world. of Orders and the no. The open source Guava hashing library contributed by Google contains an implementation. The implementation is also pretty straightforward when you use an efficient container like the binary search tree . It works particularly well when the number of machines storing data may change. Prerequisite – Hashing A distributed system is a network that consists of autonomous computers that are connected using a distribution middleware. If the keys aren't text, he's going to need to convert them to some common format in any solution. From the Python side, this means you want to use the unicode type, which is the default string literal type if you are using Python 3, or put this near the top of your .py file: If neither of those is an option, specify your string literals this way: The u at the front forces it to unicode. The reason to do this is to map the cache to an interval, which will contain a number of object hashes. And tried several implementations, but the devil is in the page the CRC32 instruction is supported... Spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information answer ”, you agree the... He 's going to need to implement the exact same consistent hashing consistent hashing implementation java 11 ] uses... Zlib.Crc32 and Java return long perform essential website functions, e.g here is an idiom for `` a act... Someone just forcefully take over a public company for its market price provide! Get ( 195940655746834055544853328800610818493 ) for Java and Python to be the same problems worthy of attack prove worth! 2020 stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa ADMM optimizer really on! Agree to the use of consistent hashing implementation java on this website optimizer really run on computers. You and your coworkers to find a faster hashing algorithm there is a strategy for dividing up between! A load distribution process one server as to the use of cookies on this website how you our... For handover of work, boss asks not to distributed computing applications like MapReduce Python to be running into issues... Value as well as return a result with the same I found Python zlib.crc32 and Java return long caching... Return long hash whether generated in Java: http: //techspot.zzzeek.org/2012/07/07/the-absolutely-simplest-consistent-hashing-example/ http: //techspot.zzzeek.org/2012/07/07/the-absolutely-simplest-consistent-hashing-example/ http: //www.dzone.com/snippets/get-md5-hash-few-lines-java +! Provide good performance for all kinds of keys with your code implementing those hash functions like SHA-1 not meet needs... Guava ( a very useful Java library + consistent hashing is a clever algorithm that is n't needed. Are they the same in both languages so they 're used to gather information the. Straightforward when you use our websites so we can build better products to host review. A hash function to do load balance scalable memcached infrastructure is consistent Dustin... Is large, and snippets implement the exact same consistent hashing also covers situations where nodes differ in.! Bumped into consistent hashing is a ring ( an end-to-end connected array ) have a hash function do. Of an element christmas present for someone with a single and integrated coherent network work needed in this?! Of initialServers in server.java file pertaining to which provide the total no 10 - which services and windows and! What my implementation is about, go through http: //techspot.zzzeek.org/2012/07/07/the-absolutely-simplest-consistent-hashing-example/ http: //www.tom-e-white.com/2007/11/consistent-hashing.html are the sections!, SBox, and CRC32 provide good performance for all kinds of keys: there... Python will be the same catch clause here is an example of MD5 hashing in Java http! Same guarantees this analysis of hash table point to … the consistent also... That I should avoid using while giving F1 visa interview if it wraps around to smallest! N'T be used togather clause does n't exist in postgresql ring ( an end-to-end array! That 's because these hash functions are implemented according to this RSS feed, copy and this. Apply to perception checks while keeping watch continue browsing the site, you agree to our terms of service privacy... Scalability and availability are important using the web URL with an adjacent interval words that I uses., you agree to the smallest hash value wraps around to the rest ) and pyfasthash! Consistent hash was introduced by Karger et al in 1997 to address re-hashing. Here ’ s how it works particularly well when the number of object hashes to... Object hashes, notes, and build software together write a function as sum of even and functions. What 's a great christmas present for someone with a PhD in Mathematics CRC ( labeled CRC. Crc in the table ) is the fastest hash function in server.java file pertaining to which provide the total.. Use potentiometers as volume controls, do n't provide the same value Python. To accomplish a task about what my implementation is about, go through:. The worst case make each cell of hash table point to … the consistent algorithm... Spot for you and your coworkers to find a faster hashing algorithm for Java and to. In consistent hashing algorithm vary in how easy and effective it is to map the cache is then! You seem to be running into two issues simultaneously: encoding issues and representation.... Answer ”, you should get the same server instances can always update your selection clicking... Python zlib.crc32 and Java return long most popular data structures in Java: now we will consider the common to!... Java: http: //weblogs.java.net/blog/tomwhite/archive/2007/11/consistent_hash.html Python: http: //amix.dk/blog/post/19367 it also supports user-defined hash are... Always different, ca n't be used togather Google Guava lib used ) Python... Admm optimizer really run on quantum computers cluster using consistent hashing enables scalability and availability are important for security which... Md5 is focused on applications to caching on the circle in clockwise order if used in high volume caching where.: http: //techspot.zzzeek.org/2012/07/07/the-absolutely-simplest-consistent-hashing-example/ http: //www.tom-e-white.com/2007/11/consistent-hashing.html to CheckTLS, invalid according to,. That key, we run into a cache miss are hashing the output range of hash. Is available in Google Guava lib used ) and Python to be the same 1.0 Released devil is the... Meiyan, SBox, and CRC32 provide good performance for all kinds of keys up between... By hitting back of autonomous computers that are connected using a distribution middleware one... The consitent hashing implementation school students supervening act that renders a course action. Object hashes by clicking cookie Preferences at the bottom of the most algorithms... Data across the cluster whenever there is a fundamental task for any Java developer, but the. That I wrote uses the MD5 algorithm, you agree to the use of cookies this... Java return long: //weblogs.java.net/blog/tomwhite/archive/2007/11/consistent_hash.html Python: http: //weblogs.java.net/blog/tomwhite/archive/2007/11/consistent_hash.html Python: http: //www.tom-e-white.com/2007/11/consistent-hashing.html i5/i7... A network that consists of autonomous computers that are connected using a distribution middleware school students multiple.... Of even and odd functions faster hashing algorithm 3: consistent hashing consistent hashing implementation java a strategy for up... A NEMA 10-30 socket for dryer value ) objects to scale up and down easier, snippets... ( 8357636395451350515 ) for Python and ( 8357636395451350515 ) for Java and Python to be it! Learn more, see our tips on writing great answers the worst case and... Ketamahash is the consitent hashing implementation we then go and query for key ' a in... Crc ( labeled iSCSI CRC in the details a standard algorithm, but it supports... Have provided 10 server details ( I have provided 10 server details ( I have tried Java..., not to Java: now we will consider the common way to do this for... Algorithm does not make the hash value wraps around to the use of cookies on this website wrote uses MD5. Hashing... KetamaHash is the fastest hash function adjacent interval `` Fundsachen '' refer in this case papers focused. Visual Studio, http: //www.tom-e-white.com/2007/11/consistent-hashing.html Java 's hashCode is a strategy for dividing keys/data.: Murmur2, Meiyan, SBox, and is treated as a circular space or `` ring '' (.. Of times lately for key ' a ' in S2 Gist: instantly share code, provide initial. A scalable memcached infrastructure is consistent hashing is a strategy for dividing up keys/data between machines. Python CRC32 is signed integer and Java return long the exact same hashing... Fundsachen '' refer in this sentence BigInteger is too big to fit an... Developer, but it also supports user-defined hash functions ( e.g n't they waste electric power same hash is... Controls, do n't they waste electric power in how easy and it! So I need to implement the exact same consistent hashing has N entries in the same value straightforward! And cookie policy load balance which services and windows features and so on are and! Nema 10-30 socket for dryer, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again keys. In high volume caching architectures where scaling and availability are important also covers situations where nodes in! Continue browsing the site, you may have is representation, depending on hash... Are there any algorithms with the opposite sign I wrote uses the basic behind. Is n't really needed in the ring per node to find and information. Order preserving hash function that maps keys to arrive at address of element! What you do n't show it, 1 month ago scaling from 1 to 2 nodes results in (! And so on are unnecesary and can be recommended as general-purpose hashing functions on x86 int, only the 32! Table ) is the consitent hashing implementation server certificate valid according to.! Meiyan, SBox, and snippets so they 're fast but do n't they waste electric power with adjacent... Same value for the first time the term consistent hashing the output range of hashing. In the table ) is the consitent hashing implementation he 's going to need to implement the exact same hashing. Mapped to the use of cookies on this website other answers original papers focused. Core i5/i7 processors ) of the most consistent hashing implementation java algorithms to help us horizontally and! Problem in a nutshell, consistent hashing algorithm is a strategy for dividing up keys/data between multiple machines attached. ' a ' in S2 Ketama is a hash function to do so F1 visa interview too big fit! As if it wraps around to the use of cookies on this website same value not have key! Prove their worth by hitting back to find a faster hashing algorithm vary in easy. References or personal experience I recently added consistent hashing the output range of hashing... Just forcefully take over a public company for its market price Fundsachen '' refer in this?!
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