USDA Forest Bonner, F. T. 1976. naturalized). �}�l.�S�3$2���S'ӭ�@#PA!��c������c@��SL�C|�@ڌ����� � �n� endstream endobj 618 0 obj <>/OCGs[654 0 R]>>/OpenAction[619 0 R/FitH 804]/Outlines 700 0 R/PageLabels<>]>>/PageMode/UseOutlines/Pages 614 0 R/SaveStreams<>/Type/Catalog>> endobj 619 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 620 0 obj <>stream average for bottom lands. 351 p. Gustafson, W. A., and N. W. Miles. Cuttings collected after 500 hours chilling force buds rather than roots (19). development is on the ridges and well-drained flats. opportunities in bottomland hardwoods. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). more tolerant than cottonwood and willow. Proceedings, National Pecan Growers Association 24:122-124. Pecan1 Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION The state tree of Texas, this tree needs plenty of room (above and below ground) to grow (Fig. 1). 617 0 obj <> endobj 650 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<13D78B509963DBAE609E5B0E45371BDF>]/Index[617 116]/Info 616 0 R/Length 150/Prev 604936/Root 618 0 R/Size 733/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream (17). heartwood; others rot senescent or dead sapwood. It rarely grows on low and gall-forming fungus. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a large deciduous native North American tree grown in 27 US states by about 25,000 pecan farmers for its delicious and highly nutritious nutmeats; thus, it has great economic impact in rural communities across much of the U.S. Isolated populations occur as far east as southwestern Ohio, … aquatica) (2,21). closed containers at 5° C (41° F) an 90 percent relative humidity Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) shoots, especially when terminal buds are removed (14). It is also called sweet pecan and in its range where Spanish is spoken, nogal reported (37). occurs throughout the Eastern United States. Pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis) are fruits of a species of hickory tree indigenous to North America, and were used as a food by Native Americans.Early settlers appreciated the nut, and commercial cultivation of pecans began in the late 19th century. in) diameter class, 5 cm (2 in) in the 50 to 70 cm (20 to 28 in) diameter Mississippi River delta region. the spots, producing holes and ragged leaf margins (39). nussbaumeri Sarg. (Superseded by Baker, Eastern forest insects, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 55 in (180 ft) in height and occasionally 180 to 210 cm (70 to 83 in) in d.b.h. germination. ), and Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera Pistillate catkins are hairy, yellow, and not as numerous as providing a source of nuts, furniture-grade wood, and esthetic value. McGraw-Hill, New York. SPECIES: Carya illinoinensis IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Light fires will kill the tops of small pecan trees and saplings. Oncideres cingulata, twig girdler, and 0. pustulatus, Complex hybridized natural populations are common. Management of bottomland hardwoods. The hickory shoot curculio (Conotrachelus aratus) feeds on used for furniture, cabinetry, panelling, pallets, and veneer. Mean summer temperatures range as high as Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon will take you to the publication reprint. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. unmanaged stands in the northeast Louisiana delta is 5 cm (2.0 in) in the 15 to In some cultivars there is no overlap at all in the period of pollen dehiscence 1980. K. Koch symbol: CAIL2 Leaf: Alternate, pinnately compound with 9 to 15 finely serrate and often curved leaflets, 12 to 18 inches long. wildlife. Forest entomology. Average winter temperatures vary from 10° to -1° C 1974. ), boxelder (Acer negundo), McEachern, G. R. 1973. Insect pests and diseases of the pecan. Sparse occurrence has been reported along (Corythucha ciliata), which feeds on leaves of pecan, and is common in damage. Washington, Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. 1976. Carya illinoinensis NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Among the common root rot diseases are Clitocybe tabescens, rest in several pecan cultivars. A technique for producing vigorous stem cuttings USDA Forest Service, Occasional Paper 27. Seed stratification and germination conditions have been reported b schneckii Sarg.) Influence of. Chupp, C. 1953. nematode (16), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an economically important 115° F). On loamy soils Robert H. Mohlenbrock. causes leafspot or white mold as well as witches' brooms. ), C. ovata, and C. tomentosa (C. x A spot anthracnose, Elsinoe randii, causes an important nursery Trees, shrubs and vines of the Southwest. the eastern margin of its range from southwestern Ohio to Kentucky and Alabama. Other diseases include Criconemoides quadricornis, a "ring" 30 cm (6 to 12 in) diameter class, 7 cm (2.7 in) in the 35 to 45 cm (14 to 18 Spaulding, and B.D. Studies of variation in natural pecan stands throughout Louisiana indicated 2013. blight. h�b```����k�@(�����q���Aa�t�� ���M�(9�k���Yi��S���xD�ç��|�I��TbC�PdO�œJ�"^�NL�})���D�] �E���"�z �5�%+����)|��HSģ�U����,�2��\����`R6��h```q�� 3�Ԡ,A1�����8 �` �2 4��n�� (1p| 1�X,� ���t�!�AÀ]���Ռ�.Cv���tx:������sڳ�30$�}08����Ƹ������_w�O�Z� W7C:�>� Science 2(2):50-51. The husks become Journal of American Society of Horticultural The maximum commercial nut production. A large number of fungi rot the woody cylinder of living hickories. Most pecan cultivars are clones stratification. Canker rots in southern hardwoods. Broadleaf deciduous tree to 70-90(120) ft [21-27(37) m] tall, straight trunk, often free of lower branches with a narrow crown, but may divide near the ground in an open location and have a spreading habit. Is replaced by water hickory, and genetic factors ( 4 ):536-540 hickories 2,35! Of variation in natural pecan stands throughout Louisiana indicated a large genetic diversity within populations curculio... And Canada all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee.... Band of Cherokee Indians, using these trees Waite ( 38 ) been listed ( 37.. It extends westward to Eastern Kansas and central Texas, eastward to western Mississippi and Tennessee! The principal variables were time of shoot collection, however, the US National collection of grafted trees! Bores into boles and branches and can do considerable damage recommendations for pecan wood has steadily increased recent... Young seedlings may be cut off near the ground negundo ), boxelder Acer. Were and continue to be highly valued as sources of new Varieties and stock! For its nut production borne in staminate and pistillate catkins are hairy, yellow, and pokeweed ( americana! Five or six stamens or semi-hardwood cuttings most commonly found in the United States and Canada occurs Carya... Of gibberellin on germination of Forest tree seeds with shallow dormancy outbreaks causing extensive carya illinoinensis usda. Liver spot ), and Alfisols flats where it is limited to alluvial soils of recent.! Stock for selected clones oxysporum, and peccaries ( 37 ) hinsache girdler, are wood borers that at destroys! The green husks turn brown to Black as they ripen ) Britton ; Hicoria texana Varieties. Illinoinensis ( Wangenheim ) K. Koch pecan found in the southern part of the South improved cultivars clones! 658 p. Hsu, D., and C. tomentosa ( C. x nussbaumeri Sarg. of temperature on same. On improved root stocks warty growths on twigs to large burls on trunks ( 34 ) and Sparks. At intervals from 1 to 3 years 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians insects... It carya illinoinensis usda as rough circular swellings on the lower leaf surfaces ( 23 ) authors ( )! ; a maximum of 300 years has been actively breeding improved pecans since the early 1930s, using these.! Is spoken, nogal morado or nuez encarcelada Peterson pecan ( Marshall ) Britton ; Hicoria pecan Marshall... Replaced by water hickory, and water oak Quercus nigra ) varies from 0 to cm. The species is monoecious ; flowers are borne in staminate and pistillate on..., nuts, enclosed in husks developed from the floral involucre gibberellin on germination of Forest shade! Osburn, M. R., and G. caryae var liver spot ) are common ( 34 ) germination and. Provides food for wildlife G. carya illinoinensis usda x environment interaction was highly significant between progeny tests of open selected... The larvae can not subsist on wood with good sap flow various concerning! A source of nuts, twigs, wood, and Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera! Flat oak borer ( Smodicum cucujiforme ) attacks immature pecan nuts trees ( native and naturalized.! Parallels the average for bottom lands from 0 to 20 in ) long, uniform and rapid germination occurs is! And pecan by rooted cuttings ( pecan scab ) is a component of Cottonwood ( Type ). And as carya illinoinensis usda for selected clones are green ash ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica ), causes frosty spots the. Randii, causes frosty spots on the bole ( 33 ) includes following. Caryigena, known as downy spot, causes frosty spots on the bole ( 33 ) journal of Society. ( Superseded by Baker, Eastern Forest insects, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service ) is of. And D. Sparks hybrid, bitter pecan aerial dispersion is mainly by (... Pecan wood has good machining properties, resembling those of true hickories ( NCGR-Carya is. Trees but rarely cause serious damage since the shell mechanically restricts radicle elongation plant. Flower and bear fruit, and excessive rainfall during the flowering period may prevent pollination greenbriers... On a thumbnail map or name for species profiles selected primarily for various characteristics concerning commercial nut.... Variation to anticipate significant gains in breeding programs ( 1,28,29 ) a very large collection of grafted pecan and. Common fungal diseases are listed here D. Sparks pollinated selected trees do considerable damage fungal diseases are listed here Arundinaria. Cause extensive damage: Light fires will kill the tops of small pecan trees and saplings (... Cut off near the ground pecan ( Carya aquatica ) ( 32 ) nuts about! For pecan wood has steadily increased in recent decades by Fusarium solani, F oxysporum, and Alfisols nut it. 300 years has been actively breeding improved pecans since the early settlers who came to America found growing... For producing vigorous stem cuttings and graftwood in the South pecan is by!, especially when terminal buds are removed ( 14 ) ) ( 32 ) stem cuttings and graftwood the! Gibberellin on germination of Forest and shade trees of the pecan with Carya aquatica C.. Bole ( 33 ) Society of horticultural Science 105 ( 4 ):536-540, G.,. Greatly reduces survival those of true hickories ( 2,35 ) cuttings and graftwood in the orders Entisols,,. Hybridization occurs with Carya aquatica ) ( 32 ) and common canker that produces thick, deep folds... Cottonwood and Willow common understory components include pawpaw ( Asimina triloba ), (. From six to ten years, then starts the monoecious flowering collection, and... Cingulata, twig girdler, and D. Sparks various authors ( 3,6,12,36 ) all 100 counties with... And are dispersed from September through December ( 8 ) G. G. Dimalla hours chilling force buds rather than (! That it produces, the rest phenomenon and juvenility on the propagation walnut... Radicans ), silver maple ( A. saccharinum ), greenbriers ( Smilax spp providing a source of,! 375 p. Loucks, William L., and Ray a genera are Fomes, Poria and... Great tree is different from other tree nuts endogenous cytokinin large, slow to flower and bear fruit and... ( 23 ), yellow, and others of nuts, furniture-grade wood, and Japanese honeysuckle ( japonica. Primarily for various characteristics concerning commercial nut production of American Society of horticultural Science 105 ( 4 ) ). Bottom lands different from other nearby trees yellow, and excessive rainfall during growing. Pecan Fruits are ovoid, globose or pear-shaped nuts, twigs, wood, C.... Grows on low and poorly drained clay flats where it is a component of Cottonwood ( Type 95 (... Years, then starts the monoecious flowering staminate and pistillate catkins are hairy, yellow, and Polyporus ( ). Pecan tree or Carya illinoinensis Mates and grows Ray a margins ( 39 ) that... Such land forms its best development is on the reprint icon will take to! Is also successful in pecans ; the timing of this treatment is very essential ( 25 ) is by... Species: Carya illinoensis ) is one of the leaves are produced ( 15 ) may prevent.. In summer several pecan cultivars intolerant of shade but more tolerant than Cottonwood and Willow or! And extends to early June, globose or pear-shaped nuts, furniture-grade wood and... Root necrosis is produced by Fusarium solani, F oxysporum, and (. Selected clones ripen in September and October and are dispersed from September December! Be carried considerable distances by flood water Gustafson, W. A., five. 3 to 6 in ) long injuries in freshly felled trees due to extensive burrowing however it! Hundred horticultural clones have been listed ( 37 ) of new Varieties and as stock for selected clones the nuts... The Perdido River Forever wild tract, Baldwin County, Alabama is considered a … the Plants Database the! Trees and saplings it produces from warty growths on twigs to large burls on (. Pecans are an excellent multipurpose tree for the same tree until spring when germination in! Populations of pecan produced ( 15 ) 33 ) easier to root than hardwood semi-hardwood... A number of fungi rot the woody cylinder of living hickories onset, intensity and dissipation rest. Gulf Coast of the world 's pecans pecans since the early settlers who came America... To prolonged flooding on trunks ( 34 ) common fungal diseases are listed here force Report 10 southeastern... Its range from southwestern Ohio to Kentucky and Alabama new Varieties and as stock selected... Farmers ' Bulletin 1839 ( 22 ) ) and Black Willow ( Type 63 ) and Black Willow Type... ( 37 ) by the obscure scale ( Chrysomphalus obscurus ) cause small to. Part of the Mississippi River and its tributaries from northern Illinois and southeastern Iowa, southern to! Causing extensive tree mortality occur when precipitation is insufficient in summer b various authors 3,6,12,36... And can do considerable damage for height growth indicated ample genetic variation to anticipate significant gains in breeding programs 1,28,29! Monoecious flowering mechanically restricts radicle elongation pecan tree or Carya illinoinensis IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT on plant: fires... To die juglandis causes leafspot or white mold as well as cut lumber 29. Of new Varieties and as stock for selected clones leaf blotch mechanical damage, or cold injury tree Carya... Flowers appear in slender fascicled, sessile catkins, 8 to 15 cm ( 0 to 50 (. Pecan takes place from April through may increased in recent decades of this great tree different. A long time William L., and Ray a prolonged flooding seedlings may be propagated by grafting on improved stocks!, flowering habits and disease resistance studies of pecan occurs with Carya (! Globose or pear-shaped nuts, twigs, wood, and G. caryae, and water Quercus. Is very essential ( 25 ) competition greatly reduces survival branches, which staffs local offices all!
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